KINEMATICS OF "PUMPING" IN THE DISCIPLINE OF WINDSURFING
20 July 2010: our National Nicola graduated in Physical Education. Of course we could not RIWmag not snoop in the content of his thesis. Ladies and Gentlemen here is the Dr. Spadea! (press the, here the second part)
“Purpose of thesis
The idea of this thesis comes from my passion for this discipline and the fact that in the literature there are few scientific papers dealing with the sport of windsurfing ("Windsurfing") that may explain more biomechanical scientific.
The need for biomechanical studies is evident if you wish to answer questions such as:
It is possible to define a "right" movement of the arms in the maneuver called pumping which allows the surfer to "take"? What is the difference between a movement performed with a handle almost equal to the width of the shoulders, one with lower grip to the breadth of the shoulders and a superior grip? Which of these three is the most profitable grips?
Photo: David Lloyd
As said, on this particular discipline were written few papers and this stems from the fact that Olympic sports from only twenty-six years for men and 18 for women category. Most of the studies already carried out and on the scientific search engine "pubmed" covered: injury mechanisms in windsurfing, correlation between heart rate and performance during competitions, request of saline pumped into Olympic sport RS:X , psychological question the athlete request due to new construction of Olympic discipline which requires a different technique of conduction concerning different muscle groups.
Photo: Peter Simon
In this thesis I performed a kinematic analysis of pumping, studying filming made directly on the race with the help of video analysis program "dartfish". The pumping is a technical gesture performed by the driver of the sailboard to increase his pace speed. This gesture is fundamental in light wind conditions in which the driving force of the wind is insufficient to reach a good speed and can therefore be decisive in competitions that take place in calm weather and sea conditions and medium, or in case the wind during competition fell (not fall below the limits of race which vary from discipline to discipline, in this case the competition would be suspended), or to more quickly reach peak speed after a tack or a gybe (walls change maneuvers, direction, in which you lose speed), or at the start of a race when path expects in water in a situation almost stalled at the end of the count down indicating the beginning of the competition and the possibility of crossing the start line between the jury boat and a buoy (who will manage to get faster on the start line in conjunction with the sound of the trumpet will then start taking advantage during the journey). The pumping is done in all levels of windsurfers and in all its disciplines, in each of these can vary by duration, intensity, number of repeated and slightly time but the end is always the same: increase the speed of creating the wind with the movements executed with the sail.
Photo: Peter Simon
We can divide this into two large movement phases: starting position and contrast of the sail.
1) The starting position of pumping is a normal pace in windsurfing in displacement or planing it is, a standing body committed to balance the force of the sail, semiflesse arms and feet placed in the table area that runs from the foot of the tree at the end of the stern depending on the intensity of the wind, table speed and size of the sail.
2) While various gaits with body weight and using muscular strength tends to counteract the force that the wing exerts in the direction of the wind. In the first phase of pumping this contrast is stopped to follow the sailing in this direction by extending the arms. This action is accompanied by the shoulders and head following the relaxation of the arms forward and is balanced by the pelvis simultaneously to the advancement of the shoulders and the head moves backwards. Reached maximum arm extension starts the second phase of pumping, a new sail contrast created by bending arms supported by a sudden imbalance to the back of head and shoulders while the pelvis moves forward. When the bending of arms reaches its climax you will start over with a new "cycle of pumping" and so on.
In all play a decisive factor of proprioceptive abilities windsurfer, his ability to analyze on the level of central nervous system all information coming from outside: amount of wind, table position, the starting position of the body at the beginning of the technical gesture and also the ability to be able to read the wind and figure out which direction will come and in what area for longer and with greater force.
Thanks to this work never done before were described three different types of grip during the pumped, considering the angular velocity of the arm movement (taking as reference the shoulder, the elbow and wrists), the speed of the wind and the number of pump strokes per minute whereas the full extension of the arms.
All this was made possible thanks to the above-mentioned "dartfish", video analysis program provided by the University of Cassino, and technical staff coordination for the realization of shooting with some difficulty obtained. Being the sailboard one water sports was the use of underwater material, a support boat that does not generate too many waves to follow more closely the implementation of the technical gesture and the use of other alternative methods to get movies from different points of view.
The movement of the pumping was filmed simultaneously from three different angles thanks to the coordination of three cameras positioned next, behind and above the windsurfer.”
text 4 www.RIWmag.com
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